經典演說EP.01|林肯的蓋茨堡演講

學習寫毛筆字要臨帖,學習如何演講要觀摩偉大的演說,瞭解精彩演說背後的歷史背景,參考演說高手內容的佈局與舖陳,型塑成功的演講氛圍。經典演說系列首選美國總統林肯(Abraham Lincoln)的蓋茨堡演講(Gettysburg Address),短短272個英文字,卻成為美國歷史上被引用最多的政治性演說,全篇充滿熱烈的感情,成功鼓舞聽眾打動人心。


歷史背景

1861至1865年期間,美國爆發南北戰爭(American Civil War),是美國歷史上最大規模的內戰,戰爭的爆發與結束都在林肯總統的任期內,持續四年。

蓋茨堡會戰(Gettysburg Campaign)為美國內戰期間,在1863年6月至7月間所發生的一連串戰鬥之總稱,為美國南北戰爭中最慘烈的一役,雙方總共派出約五萬人投入戰場,結果近八千人陣亡、超過三萬二千人受傷,為紀念此場慘烈的戰役,美國蓋茨堡紀念墓園於1863年11月19日落成,林肯應邀致詞。

作為國家公墓奠基儀式,林肯總統與哈佛大學的校長愛德華埃弗里特皆被邀請來進行演講,後者是一位傑出的新英格蘭人,曾是美國參議員與國務卿,他在儀式上滔滔不絕地講了兩個小時,詳細地談論幾個月前在此處發生地可歌可泣的戰鬥過程。

林肯隨後上台,卻只講了兩分鍾,攝影師在當時還來不及調好機器,只拍下一張照片,林肯的演講就結束了。有趣的是,哈佛大學校長兩小時的演講很快就沒有人記得了,而林肯兩分鍾的演說卻成為全世界至今還在傳誦的名篇,成為英語演講的最佳典範之一,也是許多美國中小學生必須背誦的文章。


演講分析

一篇偉大的演講詞可以是雄辯滔滔,也可以是言簡意賅,毫無疑問,林肯簡要的演說風格屬於後者。短短的蓋茨堡演講中,林肯謳歌了那些為國家內戰而犧牲的戰士們,然後以他們的事跡鼓舞人們為民有、民治、民享的政治理念而繼續奮鬥。這篇演講詞簡明扼要,充滿了熱烈的感情,深深地打動了在場的聽眾。

在著名的開場詞中,明確提到「87年前」的獨立宣言,援引「人皆生而平等」作為演講的定錨,宣揚解放黑奴導致美國內戰的理想基礎。

蓋茨堡紀念墓園的興建是為了紀念在內戰中失去生命的士兵們,因為他們的犧牲,讓美國得以延續下去而不致分裂,林肯追思的話語撫慰了美國人的傷痛,肯定戰士犧牲生命換來的永恆價值,不分聯邦軍或邦聯軍,蓋茲堡戰役的犧牲無一白費。

林肯在結尾段落語鋒一轉,讓活著的人積極思考未來的路,藉由實現已逝者的理念,讓美國能在上帝的保佑中自由地走下去。林肯的結論是「民有、民治、民享的美國政府不會從地球上消失」,此段話語被歷任的政治人物廣泛引用,作為美國政府制度的最佳典範。


總結評論

演講在精不在多,精要的演說讓聽者易於瞭解、學習與行動,並且容易傳誦不朽,〈蓋茨堡演說〉全文只有短短272個字,卻影響人類社會超過150年,充分展現林肯演說「簡短有力」的風格。南北戰爭時期,整個美國分裂成南北兩半,林肯以前人獨立建國的事蹟及對於逝去士兵的追思,勉勵美國人團結一致,繼往開來,讓自由的美國永存於世。

短短的一篇演講稿,蘊含了美國的創國精神與民主自由思想的精髓!


唯一證實林肯前往蓋茨堡的照片(圖片來源:維基百科

附錄:演說全文(中英文)

中文全文:

87年前,基於堅信自由,以及人皆生而平等這個信念,我們的先輩來到這片土地上,建立了一個新的國家。

現在我們被捲入一場浩大的內戰,它檢驗著我們的國家,或任何堅信及奠基於這些信念的國家,能否永續長存。今天,我們集會的地點,就是這場戰爭中的偉大戰場。我們在此把這個戰場的一部分獻給他們,給那些為國家存亡而捐軀的人們,做為他們靈魂永遠安息之處,我們這麼做理所應當。

但是,從更大的意義上來說,我們無法再對這塊土地做什麼奉獻、無法再使這塊土地更加神聖,因為那些曾在此地奮戰過的勇士,早已聖化這片土地了,遠超過我們卑微的努力所能增減。世人不會注意或永遠記得我們在這裡說過什麼,但他們在此地的事蹟卻將永垂不朽。

那些曾在此地奮戰過的人們,他們的志業至今已取得偉大的進展,接下來未完成的工作理應由我們這些活著的人來完成,我們應在此獻身給在我們面前未竟的志業:從那些光榮的已逝者身上,我們要更加致力於實現當初他們全心奉獻的理念;我們在此決心使他們的血不會白流;我們要使這個國家在上帝的保佑下在自由中新生,使這個民有、民治、民享的政府永世長存。


英文全文:

Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty , and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.

Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.

But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate — we can not consecrate — we can not hallow — this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us — that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion — that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain — that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom — and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

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